Tuesday, March 17, 2009

Groovy Lists

In a previous post I talked about Groovy numbers. In this post we discuss Lists in Groovy. One thing that strikes me is the use of operators in Groovy. Groovy has reduced verbosity wherever possible with the use of operators.

We create a List in Java like this:
List list = new ArrayList();

and in Groovy like this:
def list = []

Why do you think we do not use generics in Groovy? You can reply on Twitter.

Groovy allows us to apply several operators like +, -, *, and <<


//Lets create an empty list. Notice, we can create a list with the []
//operator
def aList = []
//size is also an attribute in Lists (we cannot invoke methods
//without the ())
println 'size if aList is: ' + aList.size
println 'Lists created with the [] operator are of type: ' +
aList.class.getName()

//What if I want a linked list?
def lList = [] as LinkedList
println 'lList is of type: ' + lList.class.getName()

//We can also create a LinkedList by specifically instantiating it
//like in Java
def aLinkedList = new LinkedList()
println 'We just created a list of type: ' +
aLinkedList.class.getName()

//Now we are really pushing it
def wtfList = [] as String
println 'wtfList is of type: ' + wtfList.class.getName()

//We can add elements to a list using the << operator
aList << 'element 1' << new Date()
aLinkedList << 1

//We can also add elements to a List with push() and add()
aList.push(2)
aList.add("hello")
println aList
println aLinkedList

//We can instantiate and populate a List together
def aList1 = ['a', 1, new Date(), null]
println aList1
println 'size of aList1 is: ' + aList1.size()

//We can remove elements from a List with the pop() method
println 'Removing elements from aList1 using the pop() method'
println aList1.pop()
println aList1.pop()
println 'after 2 pops the size of aList1 is: ' + aList1.size()

//Lists support negative indexes where -1 is the last element
//Notice how we have accessed a List element with the [] operator
println 'aList[-1] = ' + aList[-1]
println 'aList[0] = ' + aList[0]

//Sublists can be accesed by giving a range in the subscript
//operator
println 'aList[-1..-3] = ' + aList[-1..-3]
println 'aList[-1,-3] = ' + aList[-1,-3]
println 'aList[0..3] = ' + aList[0..3]

//empty list and Groovy truth
def emptyList = []
println 'Groovy truth for empty List is: ' +
(emptyList ? true : false)
println 'Groovy truth for non empty list is: ' +
(aList ? true : false)

//Sorting
def unsortedList = [3, 4, 2, 8, 5, 7]
println unsortedList
println 'sorting...'
println unsortedList.sort()
//The sort() method also takes a closure
unsortedList = [3, 4, 2, 8, 5, 7, 10, 19, 67, 3]
println 'sorting with a closure'
unsortedList.sort {it1, it2 ->
println """${it1} <=> ${it2} """;
it1 <=> it2}

//Let's understand the <=> spaceship (compareto) operator
println 'Let us understand the <=> operator'
println '1 compareto 1 = ' + (1 <=> 1)
println '1 compareto 2 = ' + (1 <=> 2)
println '2 compareto 1 = ' + (2 <=> 1)

//we can sum lists
println "SUM(unsortedList) = " + unsortedList.sum()

//can we sum lists which have non number members?
unsortedList << "string"
println "SUM(unsortedList) = " + unsortedList.sum()

//OK now let's remove the 'string' from this list
unsortedList -= 'string'
println "unsortedList after removing 'string': " +
unsortedList

//we can also multiply lists
def listOfGames = ['football', 'cricket', 'tennis']
println listOfGames * 2

//We can also append to a list
println "Appending lists with the << operator: " +
[1,2,3] << [4,5]

//iterating lists
println "iterating a list with the each method"
unsortedList.each(){
print it + " "
}


Output from running this code:


size if aList is: 0
Lists created with the [] operator are of type: java.util.ArrayList
lList is of type: java.util.LinkedList
We just created a list of type: java.util.LinkedList
wtfList is of type: java.lang.String
["element 1", Tue Mar 17 22:13:14 IST 2009, 2, "hello"]
[1]
["a", 1, Tue Mar 17 22:13:14 IST 2009, null]
size of aList1 is: 4
Removing elements from aList1 using the pop() method
null
Tue Mar 17 22:13:14 IST 2009
after 2 pops the size of aList1 is: 2
aList[-1] = hello
aList[0] = element 1
aList[-1..-3] = ["hello", 2, Tue Mar 17 22:13:14 IST 2009]
aList[-1,-3] = ["hello", Tue Mar 17 22:13:14 IST 2009]
aList[0..3] = ["element 1", Tue Mar 17 22:13:14 IST 2009, 2, "hello"]
Groovy truth for empty List is: false
Groovy truth for non empty list is: true
[3, 4, 2, 8, 5, 7]
sorting...
[2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8]
sorting with a closure
3 <=> 4
4 <=> 2
3 <=> 2
4 <=> 8
8 <=> 5
4 <=> 5
7 <=> 10
10 <=> 19
19 <=> 67
67 <=> 3
19 <=> 3
10 <=> 3
7 <=> 3
8 <=> 3
2 <=> 3
3 <=> 3
4 <=> 3
4 <=> 7
5 <=> 7
8 <=> 7
8 <=> 10
Let us understand the <=> operator
1 compareto 1 = 0
1 compareto 2 = -1
2 compareto 1 = 1
SUM(unsortedList) = 128
SUM(unsortedList) = 128string
unsortedList after removing 'string': [2, 3, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 19, 67]
["football", "cricket", "tennis", "football", "cricket", "tennis"]
Appending lists with the << operator: [1, 2, 3][4, 5]
iterating a list with the each method
2 3 3 4 5 7 8 10 19 67

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